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Profile : KVK Boudh


Boudh presents a panorama of many millennia in the human history. It occupies a unique position being endowed with lush green vegetation, different fauna and rich cultural heritage. The district is separated from Phulbani District which was called Bauda- Phulabani earlier. Mostly the Southern part of the district is bestowed with dense forest.

 Boudh district was formed on 2nd January 1994.Boudh district is bounded by River Mahanadi & Angul District to the north, Kandhamal District to the south, Nayagarh District to the east and River Tel & Subarnapur District to the west, covering a geographical area of 3098 sq. km (1.99% of the state), the district lies between 200 22’ N to 200 50’ North Latitude and 830 34’E to 84049’ East longitude.

Boudh District is concerned with the native rulers of Boudh. Raja Jogindar Dev was benevolent and generous and introduced the English education in the state. During his regime, Boudh has made a considerable progress in the field of modern education and culture. His sudden death in 1913, results in the numerous uprising and rebellions throughout the District, which was successfully suppressed by Raja Narayan Dev. Raja Narayan Dev was the last ruler of Boudh District, when it was merged with Odisha province on 1st January 1948. Finally in 1994, the Boudh was raised to the status of a separate functioning District on 2nd January 1994.

The district consists of only one Sub-Division i.e. Boudh and three Blocks, viz. Boudh, Harbhanga and Kantamal with district headquarters at Boudh. There is no Municipality area in the district. There is 3 Tehsils, 1 NAC, 6 Police Stations, 63 Grampanchayats and 1186 villages. There are 2 Fire Stations and 1 no, of Assembly Constituency in the District. The climatic condition of the district is subtropical, being hot and dry in summer and cold and dry in winter. The rainy season is hot and humid. In summer temperature reaches 450C and in winter temperature may come down to as low as 100C. The total cultivable area of this district is more than eighty five thousand hectares, with paddy land constituting approximately sixty four thousand hectares. Other crops are grown over an area more than twenty one thousand hectares. Irrigation projects, diversion weirs and dug wells somewhat help in sustaining the agriculture of this District. Paddy, wheat, maize, finger millet, green gram, black gram, kulthi, groundnut and mustard etc are some of the major crops grown here.

 

There are many festivals in the Boudh District that are celebrated by total population of Boudh with great enthusiasm and faith. Festivals like Chuda Khai Jatra, Ratha Yatra, Laxmi Puja, Nuakhai, Shivaratri, Dasahara, Dola Jatra, Puajiuntia and Bhaijiuntia, Ramaleela, Kailashi Jatra, Christmas, Id–Ul–Fitre are the important festivals of the District.

Industry is a source which has lately been contributing to the growth of Boudh District’s economy. A number of small scale industries functions here. They are food based, metallurgical based, textile based, forest based, engineering based and chemical based. Mining industry is another industry which is quite developed and from which the District earns substantial revenues. More than 6000 weavers are engaged in the textile zone of this District.

The district is mostly rural in character having 1186 villages without any municipality and one NACs. Increasing urbanisation has contributed in developing township in the district falling under three Tahasils. The district is having one town i.e. Boudh in the district. The district head quarter is Boudh. The detail administrative set-up of the district is reflected in the following table.

Administrative Set-up of Boudh District

Geographical Area

3,09,800 ha

Geographical Location

Latitude – 20º.22’ to 20º.50’-N

Longitude – 83º.34’ to 84º.49’-E

Geographical Boundary

North- River Mahandai & Angul Dist.

South- Kandhamala Dist.

East- Nayagarh Dist.

West- River Tel & Subarnapur Dist.

Number of Sub-Division

1 (Boudh)

Number of Blocks

3[Boudh, Harbhanga and Kantamal ]

Number of N.A.Cs.

1 ( Boudh) No.of Wards - 17

Number of Tahasils

3 ( Boudh,Harabhanga,Kantamal)

Number of Police Stations

6 (Boudh,Manamunda,Harabhanga,Kantamal, Bousuni and Purunakatak)

No. of Registration Offices

2 ( Boudh  & Kantamal)

No. of Treasuries

2 ( Boudh  & Kantamal)

Number of Gram Panchayats

63

No. of  Inhabited Villages

1115

No. of Uninhabited Villages

71

Total Number of villages

1186 [Inhabited - 1115,Uninhabited -71]

Fire Stations

4 (Boudh,Charichhak, Baunsuni and Kantamal)

No. of Jails 

1 (Boudh)

No.  of Assembly Constituencies

2 ( 85-Kantamal ,86-Boudh)

Source: http://ordistricts.nic.in/district_profile/dist_glance.php

 

District Demography

As per census 2011, Boudh had population of 441,162 of which male and female are 221,625 and 219,537 respectively. In 2001 census, Boudh was a population of 373,372 of which male was 188,155 and remaining 185,217 was females. Boudh District population constituted 1.05 percent of total Odisha population. In 2001 census, this figure for Boudh District was at 1.01 percent of Odisha population. There was change of 18.16 percent in the population compared to population as per 2001. In the previous census of India 2001, Boudh District recorded increase of 17.55 percent to its population compared to 1991. Density of Boudh district for 2011 is 142 people per sq. km. In 2001, Boudh district density was at 121 people per sq. km. Average literacy rate of Boudh in 2011 is 71.61 compared to 57.73 of 2001. If things are looked out at gender wise, male and female literacy are 83.34 and 59.79 respectively. Total literate in Boudh District are 271,612 of which male and female are 158,648 and 112,964 respectively.

 Geographical and Population details of the District (Census 2011)

Geographical Area

3,098.00 sq.km

Area under Forest :

128.00 sq.km

4.13 %

Population ( 2011 Census )

Total

441,162

in %

Male

221,625

50.24

Female

219,537

49.76

Rural

420,738

95.37

Urban

20,424

4.63

Scheduled Caste (SC)

104,934

23.79

Scheduled Caste Male

52,497

50.03

Scheduled Caste Female

52,437

49.97

Scheduled Tribe(ST)

55,364

12.55

Scheduled Tribe Male

27,362

49.42

Scheduled Tribe Female

28,002

50.58

Population Density

142 (Per sq.km)

Literacy

Total Literate

271,612

72.51

Literate Male

158,648

84.49

Literate Female

112,964

60.44

Total Illiterate

169,550

38.43

Illiterate Male

62,977

37.14

Illiterate Female

106,573

62.86

 

Households

Total Households

106,961

 

Rural Households

102,402

95.74

Urban Households

4,559

4.26

BPL Households ( 2001 Census)

4,589

--

SC/ST Households ( 2001 Census)

6,889

--

Population Growth

 

 

18.16%

Sex Ratio (Per 1000)

 

 

991

Child Sex Ratio (0-6 Age)

 

 

978

Source: http://ordistricts.nic.in/district_profile/dist_glance.php

 

Block wise general information of the Boudh District

Village Information

Population (As per the 2011 Census)

Block

Villages

No. of

Revenue

Villages

Area of villages (ha.)

No. of

G.Ps.

Male

Female

Total

S.C.

S.T.

In-habituated

Un-in

habitated

Boudh

384

32

420

65506.26

21

73069

72450

145519

34627

16670

Harabhanga

340

22

354

52456.75

18

63826

63008

126834

35832

15947

Kantamal

393

16

408

69301.00

24

74238

74147

148385

28979

22250

Total (District)

1117

70

1182

187264.01

63

 

211133

209605

420738

99438

54867

Source: District Census Handbook, 2011

 

Table shows that, the SC and ST population accounts for 23.63% and 13% respectively of total population.  Population density in the village area is 225/square km. SC population is high Harabhanga and ST population is high in Kantamal. Highest village area and no of GP found in Kantamal district. 992 female are there per 1000 male.

Average literacy rate of Boudh in 2011 were 71.61 compared to 57.73 of 2001. If things are looked out at gender wise, male and female literacy were 83.34 and 59.79 respectively. For 2001 census, same figures stood at 76.23 and 39.02 in Boudh District. Total literate in Boudh District were 271,612 of which male and female were 158,648 and 112,964 respectively. In 2001, Boudh District had 180,321 in its district. 

As per 2011 census, 95.37 % population of Boudh districts lives in rural areas of villages. The total Boudh district population living in rural areas is 420,738 of which males and females are 211,133 and 209,605 respectively. In rural areas of Boudh district, sex ratio is 993 females per 1000 males. If child sex ratio data of Boudh district is considered, figure is 979 girls per 1000 boys. Child population in the age 0-6 is 59,737 in rural areas of which males were 30,184 and females were 29,553. The child population comprises 14.30 % of total rural population of Boudh district. Literacy rate in rural areas of Boudh district is 70.84 % as per census data 2011. Gender wise, male and female literacy stood at 82.82 and 58.79 percent respectively. In total, 255,716 people were literate of which males and females were 149,864 and 105,852 respectively. 

Phytogeographically, the vegetation of Boudh district comes under two major divisions, northern tropical semi-evergreen forest and northern tropical moist deciduous forest. Boudh district comes under West Central Table Land agro climatic zone of the state. The district is covers under one agro climatic zone and two agro-ecological situations as indicated below:

ACS and AES of Boudh District

Sl. No

Agro-climatic Zone

Agro-ecological situations

Blocks covered

Broad Soil groups

1

Western Central Table Land

Plain land irrigated

Boudh

Red and Yellow, Red & Black, Black, Brown Forest, Lateritic

 

Plateau rainfed

Harabhanga

 

Plain land rainfed

Kantamal

 

The soil of the district is generally fertile with low status of nitrogen and available phosphoric acid at certain places. Most part of the district has black alluvial soil. The revering blocks of Kantamal, Boudh and Harbhanga is full of black alluvial Soil which is most fertile due to deposit of silt. Out of 3 Blocks, 2 blocks have plane lands and one block has the combination of plane and hilly ranges. The soil of the district has high moisture retention capacity. The soil is quite rich for growing paddy, pulses, oil seeds and cotton.

Major Soil of Boudh District

S. No

Soil type

Characteristics

Area (000ha)

1

Black soil

Clay loam

96.1

2

Mixed red & black

Sandy clay loam

164.3

3

Red soil

Sandy loam

49.6

Figure shows that 53 percent soils are sandy clay loam in nature followed by 31 percent clay loam and only 16 percent are sandy loam soil across the district.

 

The soils are mostly neutral to acidic in nature throughout the district. Availability of Phosphorous (P) and Potash (K) in soils are high whereas the Nitrogen status is medium in two blocks except Kantamal block. The status of Nitrogen is low in Kantamal block. The block wise soil reaction and fertility status are stated below:


 

Block wise Soil reaction and Fertility status of Boudh District (Area in % )

S. No

Name of Block

Soil Reaction

Fertility Index

Acid

Normal

Alkaline

N

P

K

1

Boudh

89%

11%

-

1.18

1.43

1.32

2

Harabhanga

70%

30%

-

1.27

1.54

1.23

3

Kantamal

90%

10%

-

1.16

1.70

1.59

 

 

Most part of the district has black alluvial soil. The district Boudh covers fertile plains and hilly zones. This area consists of a long strip of level land running parallel to the Mahanadi. Many small streams, tributary rivers, fountain (locally called jhor) find their way to the Mahanadi. The river line plains of Boudh are drained by the tributaries of the Mahanadi while the southern and the western region are drained by the tributaries of the Tel. The referring blocks of Kantamal, Boudh and Harbhanga isfull of black alluvial soil which is most fertile due to deposit of salt. Out of 3 blocks, 2 blocks have plain lands and one block has got mixture of plain and hilly ranges. The soil of the district has high moisture retention capacity. The soil is quite rick for growing paddy, pulses, oil seeds and sugarcane.

The climate of this district is sub-tropical, hot dry in summer, cold dry in winter, cool and humid during rainy season. In summer the temperature rises up to 450 C, in winter it falls to 100 C. December is the coldest month in the year and May is the hottest month. The rainfall is erratic with uneven distribution resulting very frequently either in drought or in flood condition. The monsoon breaks in the middle of June and completely ends in mid-October, causing heavy downpour in July and August. The normal rainfall of this district is 1626 mm. The month wise rainfall are stated below:

Block wise monthly rainfall data (Latest data) of the Year 2014-15

 

S.No

Block

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

June

July

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

 

1

Boudh

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

73.00

34.20

470.40

479.00

357.30

65.30

0.00

0.00

 

2

Kantamal

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

143.00

57.00

993.90

549.30

327.20

22.20

0.00

0.00

 

3

Harabhanga

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

160.40

18.20

543.70

347.60

344.40

85.80

0.00

0.00

 

Total (District)

 

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

376.40

109.4

2008

1375.9

1028.9

173.3

0.0

0.0

 

 

"http://oriyaonline.com/content_images/orissa_map_wid%20_dist/Baudh.gif"The principal rivers are the Mahanadi and Tel, which flow around the North Western side bordering Kantamal, Boudh and Harbhanga Blocks, an few small rivers such as Sunamodi, Salur, Khadog and Bagh are originated from the hilly regions of Kandhamal district and flow towards Boudh district and meet with Mahanadi and Tel river. Major portion of this district is flood prone as many rivers pass through this district.

 

Out of the total geographical area of 3, 52, 292 ha in the district, the area under forest is 1, 82,995 ha. Which is 51.94 % of the total area. The forest produce of economic importance in the district are Bamboo, Kendu leaves, Mahua Flowers/Seeds, Siali leaves, Timber, Fire wood,  Myrabolam, Gendulingama and Tamarind. Over the years, forest suffered serious depletion due to relentless pressure arising forever increasing demand for fuel wood, fodder, and timber.

The district economy is mainly agrarian and the primary economic activity of the people is cultivation. Many of the people depend on minor forest produce as well. However, the artisans available are weavers, black smith, carpenters and Basket markets, etc. However, agriculture is the main source of income. The economy of the district is not only unorganized but also non-monetised. The non-monetised economy has given rise to all kinds of exploitations because the tribal people cannot get a good price for the forest and agricultural produce that they used to sell in the market.

Substantial investments have been made over the plan period for construction of irrigation infrastructure and creation of irrigation potential in the district. The district has about 35.48 percent land are irrigated. Many major, medium and minor irrigation projects have been constructed during the plan period in the district. To create additional irrigation facilities, the Agriculture Department provided subsidy to farmers for digging of bore wells, dug wells and purchase of pump sets etc. Scrutiny revealed that 18 bore wells, 65 dug wells and 2077 pump sets were provided during 2007-12 to the farmers at subsidized cost. Boudh district is rich in both groundwater and surface water resources. Around 51550 ha (60.52%) of the net cultivable area (85180 ha) is irrigated during Kharif season and 10444 ha (12.26%) is irrigated (assured irrigation) during Rabi season. As against the groundwater utilisable resource for irrigation use at 35618 ha, annual draft for irrigation use is 4938 ha. The current level of exploitation of groundwater potential is only 15.6% of the utilizable recharge as against state average of 18.3%.

Source wise Area Irrigated(Latest data) (Area in hectares) of the Year 2014-15

Block

Dug/ Tube /Bore

Wells

Lift

Irrigation

Medium

Minor

Total

Nos.

Area

Nos.

Area

Nos.

Area

Nos.

Area

Area

Boudh

1181

796

147

3366

2

14884

21

2695

22489

Harabhanga

 

1494

904

137

2737

1

6989

26

7063

18464

Kantamal

1607

1158

206

5354

1

6853

27

3970

17896

Total

 

4282

2858

490

11457

4

28726

74

13728

58849

Source: Irrigation Dept.

 

Among the different Kharif crops, the upland rice is most affected by drought. Therefore, diversified land use with low duty non-paddy crops is the best option in these lands. In real sense the technology available to mitigate drought are mostly preventive in “nature and requires early planning. The age-old adage “Prevention is better than cure” thus holds good in drought management. Therefore, it is imperative to have a long-term policy and planning at the beginning of the season for judicious use of water, land and crops in a particular locality for best results. The major thrust in drought mitigation in rain fed areas should be on rainwater management through in-situ conservation and water harvesting through on-farm reservoirs capturing runoff from local catchments, flash flood water from local streams to recycle at the time of need.

 

Infrastructure is an umbrella term for many activities referred to as Social Capital. It includes public utilities like power, telecommunications, sanitation and sewerage roads and major dams, canal works, irrigation and drainage, road ways, urban transport, post, water ways and airports. The prosperity of the district is determined by the achievement it made in creating and developing the infrastructure facilities. Boudh district is well connected by roads to different parts of the state.

 

Road and Railway Network in the District

Particular 

Year

Unit

Statistics

Length of rail line

2015-16

Kms

0

National Highway

2015-16

Kms

266.11

State Highway

2015-16

Kms

112.5

Major District Road

2015-16

Kms

4

Other district  Roads

2015-16

Kms

49.45

Rural road 

2015-16

Kms

606.20

G.P. Road

2014-15

Kms

4494

Panchayat samiti road

2014-15

Kms

208

Forest Road

2014-15

Kms

245

 

The length of surfaced roadsis5687 Kms. In the district. The district has good network of roads but no railway line.

Boudh is industrially one of the most underdeveloped district of Odisha.

 In spite of rich forest resources the industrial sector has remained stagnant over the successive Five-year Plans. The slow growth of industries in the district is due to the absence of sufficient coal and other sources of power, lack of mineral resources, low production of different raw materials, not to mention the inadequate infrastructure facilities, lack of demand for finished products, lack of skilled workers, shortage of capital and entrepreneurial talent. The entire district is not served by any railway line. The district has, however, a railway Booking Counter at Boudh which is served by Rairakhol Railway Station in the neighbouring district of Sambalpur, situated at a distance of 30 km. from Boudh. There is no large scale or medium size industry in the district. The existing industrial unit deals comprise only the small scale and cottage industry.

Major Rice Mill in the District

Sl. No

Name of the Unit

Address

No.          of

Workers

1.

M/s. MaaArnapurna Rice Mill

Kultajore, Block-Kantamal

20

2.

M/s. Om Shanti Paddy Products (P)Ltd.

Majipada, Block-Kantamal

47

3.

M/s. Balaji rice Industries

Tubuda, Block-Kantamal

18

4.

M/s. Sherawali Rice Mills (P) Ltd

Biswanathpur, Block-Harabhanga

30

5.

M/s. Bhabani Rice Mill

Biramchandrapur, Block-Harabhanga

23

6.

M/s. MaaBhairabi Rice Industries

Landibandha, Block-Harabhanga

49

7.

M/s. Ranisati Paddy Processing (P)Ltd

Purunakatak, Block-Harabhanga

38

8.

M/s. Maa Paddy Industries

Laigaon, Block-Harabhanga

40

9.

M/s. Shree Krishna Rice Industries

Rambhikata, Block-Harabhanga

14

10.

M/s. MaaPahadiwali Rice Mill

Kamaplpur, Block-Boudh

18

 

Boudh district is situated at the central parts of the state. The main stay of the people of the district is agriculture and this continues to be practiced in a traditional method. Boudh is industrially categorized as an underdeveloped district. Most of these units have come up in agro-based (rice mills, flour mills etc.,), food processing (cashew, pickles, badi & papad, sauce, biscuits, corn flakes etc.,) engineering & allied (automobile repairing & servicing, mechanical workshops etc.,), mineral based (granite cutting & polishing, stone chips etc.,), textile based and servicing & repairing. Besides the above, the other industries under micro enterprises sector are also functioning in the district. Industry is a source which has lately been contributing to the growth of Boudh District’s economy. A number of small scale industries functions here. They are food based, metallurgical based, textile based, forest based, engineering based and chemical based. Mining industry is another industry which is quite developed and from which the District earns substantial revenues. More than 6000 weavers are engaged in the textile zone of this District.

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